Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)– is a neurological-behavioral developmental disorder that begins in childhood. Also, if you fail to adapt to ADHD, you may experience a decrease in intelligence and difficulty in perceiving information.
Features of behavior for ADHD – the characteristic is divided into three categories:
1.Symptoms of inattention. Such children are easily distracted, forgetful, hardly concentrate their attention. They have problems with the performance of tasks, the organization and compliance with certain rules. One gets the impression that they do not listen when they are told something. They often make mistakes due to inattention, lose their school supplies and other things. During school lessons, it is very difficult to perceive and remember information
2. Symptoms of hyperactivity. Children seem impatient, overly sociable, fussy, can not sit for long. In the classroom, they usually leave the situation at the wrong time. Speaking figuratively, they are always in motion, as if hit. The normal cognitive activity of a child, even when elevated, differs from hyperactivity precisely: it has a purpose and meaning. Hyperactivity – activity is chaotic, random, aimless. Its only purpose is instant stimulation, obtaining strong sensations, and not knowing.
3.Symptoms of impulsivity. Very often in class, adolescents and children with ADHD cry out the answer before the teacher ends their question, constantly interrupting, when others say, they find it difficult to wait their turn. They are not able to postpone the receipt of pleasure. If they want something, then they should get it at the same time, not yielding to a variety of persuasions. The problem is that the explanations with these children do not work. Children perfectly know the rules and norms. But when they need to apply them in practice in complex, overburdened emotions situations – they forget about all the rules and immediately choose the simplest, and perhaps stupid, solution.
According to the American Psychiatric Association, ADHD is a common disorder that occurs in 3-7% of school-age children, more often in boys
The exact cause of ADHD is not clear to this day. However, experts believe that the symptoms of ADHD may be due to a set of factors:
– ADHD tends to be inherited
– There is reason to believe that drinking alcohol and smoking during pregnancy, premature birth and prematurity may also increase the likelihood of a child developing ADHD
– Brain Injury and Infectious Brain Diseases in Early Childhood
Mechanism of development of ADHD is the deficit of neurotransmitters (dopamine and norepinephrine) in some areas of the brain. These data underscore the fact that ADHD is a disease that requires appropriate diagnosis and proper treatment.
In different countries, approaches to treatment and correction of ADHD and available methods may differ. However, despite these differences, most experts consider the most complex approach, which combines several methods, individually selected in each specific case. Methods of behavior modification, psychotherapy, pedagogical and neuropsychological correction are used. Drug therapy is prescribed by individual indications in cases when violations of behavior and cognitive functions can not be overcome by non-drug methods.
Medical treatment of ADHD is not aimed at the child sitting quietly and silently. Sedatives are not used to treat ADHD. The drugs developed for this condition are aimed at increasing the time of active attention – that is, the child gets the opportunity to listen to the teacher carefully not for five minutes, but twenty-five. In those cases when the treatment is adequately selected, parents often say that the child becomes more mature, more sensible, more attentive, begins to learn better, changes for the better even in the family. Treatment does not replace, but complements parental educational efforts.